Six Thinking Hats

Looking at a Decision From All Points of View

Look at decisions from many angles,
with James Manktelow & Amy Carlson.

'Six Thinking Hats' is an important and powerful technique. It is used to look at decisions from a number of important perspectives. This forces you to move outside your habitual thinking style, and helps you to get a more rounded view of a situation.

This tool was created by Edward de Bono in his book '6 Thinking Hats'.

Many successful people think from a very rational, positive viewpoint. This is part of the reason that they are successful. Often, though, they may fail to look at a problem from an emotional, intuitive, creative or negative viewpoint. This can mean that they underestimate resistance to plans, fail to make creative leaps and do not make essential contingency plans.

Similarly, pessimists may be excessively defensive, and more emotional people may fail to look at decisions calmly and rationally.

If you look at a problem with the 'Six Thinking Hats' technique, then you will solve it using all approaches. Your decisions and plans will mix ambition, skill in execution, public sensitivity, creativity and good contingency planning.

How to Use the Tool

You can use Six Thinking Hats in meetings or on your own. In meetings it has the benefit of blocking the confrontations that happen when people with different thinking styles discuss the same problem.

Each 'Thinking Hat' is a different style of thinking. These are explained below:

  • White Hat:
    With this thinking hat you focus on the data available. Look at the information you have, and see what you can learn from it. Look for gaps in your knowledge, and either try to fill them or take account of them.

    This is where you analyze past trends, and try to extrapolate from historical data.

  • Red Hat:
    'Wearing' the red hat, you look at problems using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion. Also try to think how other people will react emotionally. Try to understand the responses of people who do not fully know your reasoning.
  • Black Hat:
    Using black hat thinking, look at all the bad points of the decision. Look at it cautiously and defensively. Try to see why it might not work. This is important because it highlights the weak points in a plan. It allows you to eliminate them, alter them, or prepare contingency plans to counter them.

    Black Hat thinking helps to make your plans 'tougher' and more resilient. It can also help you to spot fatal flaws and risks before you embark on a course of action. Black Hat thinking is one of the real benefits of this technique, as many successful people get so used to thinking positively that often they cannot see problems in advance. This leaves them under-prepared for difficulties.

  • Yellow Hat:
    The yellow hat helps you to think positively. It is the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it. Yellow Hat thinking helps you to keep going when everything looks gloomy and difficult.
  • Green Hat:
    The Green Hat stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solutions to a problem. It is a freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of ideas. A whole range of creativity tools can help you here.
  • Blue Hat:
    The Blue Hat stands for process control. This is the hat worn by people chairing meetings. When running into difficulties because ideas are running dry, they may direct activity into Green Hat thinking. When contingency plans are needed, they will ask for Black Hat thinking, etc.

A variant of this technique is to look at problems from the point of view of different professionals (e.g. doctors, architects, sales directors, etc.) or different customers.


The directors of a property company are looking at whether they should construct a new office building. The economy is doing well, and the amount of vacant office space is reducing sharply. As part of their decision they decide to use the 6 Thinking Hats technique during a planning meeting.

Looking at the problem with the White Hat, they analyze the data they have. They examine the trend in vacant office space, which shows a sharp reduction. They anticipate that by the time the office block would be completed, that there will be a severe shortage of office space. Current government projections show steady economic growth for at least the construction period.

With Red Hat thinking, some of the directors think the proposed building looks quite ugly. While it would be highly cost-effective, they worry that people would not like to work in it.

When they think with the Black Hat, they worry that government projections may be wrong. The economy may be about to enter a 'cyclical downturn', in which case the office building may be empty for a long time. If the building is not attractive, then companies will choose to work in another better-looking building at the same rent.

With the Yellow Hat, however, if the economy holds up and their projections are correct, the company stands to make a great deal of money. If they are lucky, maybe they could sell the building before the next downturn, or rent to tenants on long-term leases that will last through any recession.

With Green Hat thinking they consider whether they should change the design to make the building more pleasant. Perhaps they could build prestige offices that people would want to rent in any economic climate. Alternatively, maybe they should invest the money in the short term to buy up property at a low cost when a recession comes.

The Blue Hat has been used by the meeting's Chair to move among the different thinking styles. He or she may have needed to keep other members of the team from switching styles, or from criticizing other peoples' points.

It is well worth reading Edward de Bono's book 6 Thinking Hats for more information on this technique.

Key Points

De Bono's Six Thinking Hats is a good technique for looking at the effects of a decision from a number of different points of view.

It allows necessary emotion and skepticism to be brought into what would otherwise be purely rational decisions. It opens up the opportunity for creativity within Decision Making. The technique also helps, for example, persistently pessimistic people to be positive and creative.

Plans developed using the '6 Thinking Hats' technique will be sounder and more resilient than would otherwise be the case. It may also help you to avoid public relations mistakes, and spot good reasons not to follow a course of action before you have committed to it.

This site teaches you the skills you need for a happy and successful career; and this is just one of many tools and resources that you'll find here at Mind Tools. Subscribe to our free newsletter, or join the Mind Tools Club and really supercharge your career!

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Comments (13)
  • Michele wrote This month
    Hi enlighten79,

    I have used the six thinking hats on project teams. By having a team member wear a specific "hat" and ask questions or offer ideas from that perspective, it really gets away from group think.

    I encourage you to try it!

  • enlighten79 wrote This month
    I love this book though I have not implemented using this method to solve issues. I like books on lateral thinking. Am sure that this article will motivate me and all our friends to make some changes and analyse and learn..:-).
  • Yolande wrote Over a month ago
    Glad to hear you like the concept and that you will be able to put it to good use, saitheja123.

    Mind Tools Team
  • saitheja123 wrote Over a month ago
    it is a great way of thinking about the problems we face in 6 different views. I think this would solve maximum issues.
  • Midgie wrote Over a month ago
    Hi SonjaSchutte,
    Great to hear that you are using this with your students. I will be doing the Six Thinking Hats next Monday with my Business students.

    I agree, there are so many applications of this tool for any important decision. It just helps to get a more rounded view of the situation by looking at the same situation from different perspectives.

  • SonjaSchutte wrote Over a month ago
    I am using this in the Educational field (School environment), but also see it as a great benefit for decision making in staff meetings when discussing important future decision and changes.
  • Midgie wrote Over a month ago
    Hi Cehall10,
    It's great to hear that you received training and are using the Six Thinking Hats. It is indeed a great idea generating approach.

    In regards to an application to capture all that you have done, the one app that I am currently trying to get to grips with is Evernote.

    We did an Apps Review - - which might be of interest to you.

    Another new app, which is in the pipeline for review, is Post-It Plus. Supposedly, it is ideal to capture ideas we normally put on post-it notes!

    Please let us know if you find something that works for you.

    Anyone else, suggestions of an app or something to capture all the ideas?

  • cehall10 wrote Over a month ago
    I just received training yesterday and used for the first time today. Great process to use and very productive meeting. Anyone know of an application or template you can use to capture the post-it notes by hat (category)?
  • Dianna wrote Over a month ago
    Thanks for the feedback srozycki1219!

    I too see it as a great brainstorming tool particularly for getting out of a rut. I've been in a few recent brainstorming sessions where the participants start out strong with lots of interesting ideas but then one idea really fits and suddenly all the ideas start building on the main. The group gets a bit tunnelled and the creative, out of the box ideas stop. I think six thinking hats would be very helpful to get out of that rut - you get the group to put on a different hat whenever the ideas start getting too fixated on one track.

  • srozycki1219 wrote Over a month ago
    I have used Six thinking hats several times over the last couple of years since I was trained on it. I see its best use in brain storming when the ideas could be all over the place and opinions can be good and bad. It is a great tool to keep the team moving in the right direction.
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