Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing

Understanding the Stages of Team Formation

Learn how to use Bruce Tuckman's simple model to
help your new team become effective quickly.

You can't expect a new team to perform well when it first comes together.

Forming a team takes time, and members often go through recognizable stages as they change from being collections of strangers to united groups with common goals. Bruce Tuckman's Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing model describes these stages. When you understand it, you can help your new team become effective more quickly.

In this article, we'll look at how you can use this model to build a highly productive team.

About the Model

Psychologist Bruce Tuckman first came up with the memorable phrase "forming, storming, norming, and performing" in his 1965 article, "Developmental Sequence in Small Groups." He used it to describe the path that most teams follow on their way to high performance. Later, he added a fifth stage, "adjourning" (which is sometimes known as "mourning").

Let's look at each stage in more detail.


In this stage, most team members are positive and polite. Some are anxious, as they haven't fully understood what work the team will do. Others are simply excited about the task ahead.

As leader, you play a dominant role at this stage, because team members' roles and responsibilities aren't clear.

This stage can last for some time, as people start to work together, and as they make an effort to get to know their new colleagues.


Next, the team moves into the storming phase, where people start to push against the boundaries established in the forming stage. This is the stage where many teams fail.

Storming often starts where there is a conflict between team members' natural working styles. People may work in different ways for all sorts of reasons, but if differing working styles cause unforeseen problems, they may become frustrated.

Storming can also happen in other situations. For example, team members may challenge your authority, or jockey for position as their roles are clarified. Or, if you haven't defined clearly how the team will work, people may feel overwhelmed by their workload, or they could be uncomfortable with the approach you're using.

Some may question the worth of the team's goal, and they may resist taking on tasks.

Team members who stick with the task at hand may experience stress, particularly as they don't have the support of established processes, or strong relationships with their colleagues.


Gradually, the team moves into the norming stage. This is when people start to resolve their differences, appreciate colleagues' strengths, and respect your authority as a leader.

Now that your team members know one-another better, they may socialize together, and they are able to ask each other for help and provide constructive feedback. People develop a stronger commitment to the team goal, and you start to see good progress towards it.

There is often a prolonged overlap between storming and norming, because, as new tasks come up, the team may lapse back into behavior from the storming stage.


The team reaches the performing stage when hard work leads, without friction, to the achievement of the team's goal. The structures and processes that you have set up support this well.

As leader, you can delegate much of your work, and you can concentrate on developing team members.

It feels easy to be part of the team at this stage, and people who join or leave won't disrupt performance.


Many teams will reach this stage eventually. For example, project teams exist for only a fixed period, and even permanent teams may be disbanded through organizational restructuring.

Team members who like routine, or who have developed close working relationships with other team members, may find this stage difficult, particularly if their future now looks uncertain.

Using the Tool

As a team leader, your aim is to help your people perform well, as quickly as possible. To do this, you'll need to change your approach at each stage.

Follow the steps below to ensure that you're doing the right thing at the right time:

  1. Identify the stage of team development that your team is at from the descriptions above.
  2. Now consider what you need to do to move towards the performing stage. Figure 1, below, will help you understand your role, and think about how you can move the team forward.
  3. Schedule regular reviews of where your team is, and adjust your behavior and leadership approach appropriately.

Figure 1: Leadership Activities at Different Group Formation Stages

Stage Activities
  • Establish processes and structures.
  • Build trust   and good relationships   between team members.
  • Resolve conflicts   swiftly if they occur. Provide support, especially to those team members who are less secure.
  • Remain positive   and firm in the face of challenges to your leadership, or to the team's goal.
  • Explain the "forming, storming, norming, and performing" idea, so that people understand why problems are occurring, and so that they see that things will get better in the future. Coach   team members in assertiveness   and conflict resolution skills  , where this is necessary.
  • Use psychometric indicators such as Myers-Briggs   and the Margerison-McCann Team Management Profile   to help people learn about different work styles and strengths.
  • Step back and help team members take responsibility for progress towards the goal. (This is a good time to arrange a team-building   event.)
  • Delegate   tasks and projects as far as you can. Once the team is achieving well, you should aim to have as light a touch as possible. You will now be able to start focusing on other goals and areas of work.
  • Take the time to celebrate the team's achievements – you may work with some of your people again, and this will be much easier if people view past experiences positively.

Key Points

Team formation usually follows easily recognizable stages, known as "forming, storming, norming, and performing." Psychologist Bruce Tuckman, who created this memorable phrase, later added a fifth stage, "adjourning" or "mourning."

You can use Tuckman's model to help your team reach the performing stage as quickly as possible.

First you identify the stage of development that your team is at. Then, you use strategies that move your team through to the next stage in the team formation process. With focus and hard work, you'll quickly have a high-performing team.

This site teaches you the skills you need for a happy and successful career; and this is just one of many tools and resources that you'll find here at Mind Tools. Subscribe to our free newsletter, or join the Mind Tools Club and really supercharge your career!

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Comments (20)
  • Midgie wrote Over a month ago
    Hi Beatrice,
    Indeed each team will take the time it needs to go through each phase and get to that performing stage! Interesting though to see if there are any trends while monitoring the different groups.

    Mind Tools Team
  • Beatrice wrote Over a month ago
    good to know this.i have also noted time taken in each stage is unque to specific teams
  • Michele wrote Over a month ago

    Thank you for your insights. I have also found that when a new team member joins an intact team that the team will go through the stages again.

  • Julianne_32 wrote Over a month ago
    I'm sorry - typo in my previous comment. When there is a change, the team will revert back to the FORMING stage (not Norming).
    Apologies for the error.
  • Julianne_32 wrote Over a month ago
    A key point that isn't mentioned in this article is that whenever your team experiences a major change - for example, a team member leaving or a new team member joining, a change of location or working style (eg. more remote working) etc - the team will revert back to the Norming stage and progress again through the stages.

    The stage at which your team had got to before the change will determine how quickly it will move through the stages again - for example a Storming team that gains a new member of staff will take longer to get through Norming and (again) Storming than a team previously at the Norming or Performing stage.

    A high Performing team may even skip the Storming step or may even proactively use differences and tensions that arise with the change in order to grow and improve as a team and reach a more effective and productive Performing stage than before.
  • Damion wrote Over a month ago
    I have just joined a group at my church. I have been their leader for this quarter. We are half way into the quarter. I think are now approaching the performing stage. Wow. Awesome feeling.
  • Yolande wrote Over a month ago
    If you decide to join the Club, you are more than welcome to make use of the forums to get ideas and information from our coaches and from our members too.

    Our article called "Team Charters" may also be useful to you.

    Mind Tools Team
  • DRPREMA wrote Over a month ago
    Fabulous! I am on the verge of taking responsibility for a Bureau of communication of an NGO that has 5000 centers in 140 countries! Daunting, scary, but exciting!! While the bureau is well established and running well in its home country, we need to start afresh in the international centers. Any ideas and direction would be most appreciated.
  • cummingbird wrote Over a month ago
    hi im here
  • Midgie wrote Over a month ago
    Hi David,
    Team effectiveness can indeed be challenging, particularly if you are physically located in different places.

    One of my favorite articles to help improve team effectiveness is about developing a Team Charter - - this might give you a few ideas that can help.

    Also, we have lots of different articles and resources in our Team Management toolkit section that might give you more ideas.
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