Writing Skills

Getting Your Written Message Across Clearly

Improve your writing skills,
with James Manktelow & Amy Carlson.

A colleague has just sent you an email relating to a meeting you're having in one hour's time. The email is supposed to contain key information that you need to present, as part of the business case for an important project.

But there's a problem: the email is so badly written that you can't find the data you need. There are misspellings and incomplete sentences, and the paragraphs are so long and confusing that it takes you three times more than it should to find the information you want. As a result, you're under-prepared for the meeting, and it doesn't go as well as you want it to.

Have you ever faced a situation similar to this? In today's information overload world, it's vital to communicate clearly, concisely and effectively. People don't have time to read book-length emails, and they don't have the patience to scour badly-constructed emails for "buried" points.

The better your writing skills are, the better the impression you'll make on the people around you – including your boss, your colleagues, and your clients. You never know how far these good impressions will take you!

In this article, we'll look at how you can improve your writing skills and avoid common mistakes.

Audience and Format

The first step to writing clearly is choosing the appropriate format. Do you need to send an informal email  ? Write a detailed report  ? Create advertising copy? Or write a formal letter?

The format, as well as your audience, will define your "writing voice" – that is, how formal or relaxed the tone should be. For instance, if you write an email to a prospective client, should it have the same tone as an email to a friend?

Definitely not.

Start by identifying who will read your message. Is it targeted at senior managers, the entire human resources team, or a small group of engineers? With everything you write, your readers, or recipients, should define your tone as well as aspects of the content.

Composition and Style

Once you know what you're writing, and for whom you're writing, you actually have to start writing.

A blank, white computer screen is often intimidating. And it's easy to get stuck because you don't know how to start. Try these tips for composing and styling your document:

  • Start with your audience – Remember, your readers may know nothing about what you're telling them. What do they need to know first?
  • Create an outline – This is especially helpful if you're writing a longer document such as a report, presentation, or speech. Outlines help you identify which steps to take in which order, and they help you break the task up into manageable pieces of information.
  • Use AIDA – If you're writing something that must inspire action in the reader, follow the Attention-Interest-Desire-Action (AIDA)   formula. These four steps can help guide you through the writing process.
  • Try some empathy – For instance, if you're writing a sales letter for prospective clients, why should they care about your product or sales pitch? What's the benefit for them? Remember your audience's needs at all times.
  • Use the Rhetorical Triangle – If you're trying to persuade someone to do something, make sure that you communicate why people should listen to you, pitch your message in a way that engages your audience, and present information rationally and coherently. Our article on the Rhetorical Triangle   can help you make your case in the most effective way.
  • Identify your main theme – If you're having trouble defining the main theme of your message, pretend that you have 15 seconds to explain your position. What do you say? This is likely to be your main theme.
  • Use simple language – Unless you're writing a scholarly article, it's usually best to use simple  , direct language. Don't use long words just to impress people.


Your document should be as "reader friendly" as possible. Use headings, subheadings, bullet points, and numbering whenever possible to break up the text.

After all, what's easier to read – a page full of long paragraphs, or a page that's broken up into short paragraphs, with section headings and bullet points? A document that's easy to scan will get read more often than a document with long, dense paragraphs of text.

Headers should grab the reader's attention. Using questions   is often a good idea, especially in advertising copy or reports, because questions help keep the reader engaged and curious.

In emails and proposals, use short, factual headings and subheadings, like the ones in this article.

Adding graphs and charts   is also a smart way to break up your text. These visual aids not only keep the reader's eye engaged, but they can communicate important information much more quickly than text.

Grammatical Errors

You probably don't need us to tell you that errors in your document will make you look unprofessional. It's essential to learn grammar properly, and to avoid common mistakes that your spell checker won't find.

Here are some examples of commonly misused words:

  • Affect/Effect
    • "Affect" is a verb meaning to influence. (Example: The economic forecast will affect our projected income.)
    • "Effect" is a noun meaning the result or outcome. (Example: What is the effect of the proposal?)
  • Then/Than
    • "Then" is typically an adverb indicating a sequence in time. (Example: We went to dinner, then we saw a movie.)
    • "Than" is a conjunction used for comparison. (Example: The dinner was more expensive than the movie.)
  • Your/You're
    • "Your" is a possessive. (Example: Is that your file?)
    • "You're" is a contraction of "you are." (Example: You're the new manager.)
    • Note: Also watch out for other common homophones (words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings) – such as their/they're/there, to/too/two, and so on.
  • Its/It's
    • "Its" is a possessive. (Example: Is that its motor?)
    • "It's" is a contraction of "It is." (Example: It's often that heavy.) (Yes, it is this way around!)
  • Company's/Companies (and Other Possessives Versus Plurals)
    • "Company's" indicates possession. (Example: The company's trucks hadn't been maintained properly.)
    • "Companies" is plural. (Example: The companies in this industry are suffering.)

To learn more about commonly misused words, misused apostrophes, and other grammatical errors, take our Bite-Sized Training session on Written Communication.


Some of your readers – arguably an increasing number – won't be perfect at spelling and grammar. They may not notice if you make these errors. But don't use this as an excuse: there will usually be people, senior managers in particular, who will notice!

Because of this, everything you write should be of a quality that every reader will find acceptable.


The enemy of good proofreading is speed. Many people rush through their documents, but this is how you miss mistakes. Follow these guidelines to check what you've written:

  • Proof your headers and subheaders – People often skip these and focus on the text alone. Just because headers are big and bold doesn't mean they're error free!
  • Read the document out loud – This forces you to go more slowly, so that you're more likely to catch mistakes.
  • Use your finger to follow text as you read – This is another trick that helps you slow down.
  • Start at the end of your document – Proofread one sentence at a time, working your way from the end to the beginning. This helps you focus on errors, not on content.

Key Points

More than ever, it's important to know how to communicate your point quickly and professionally. Many people spend a lot of time writing and reading, so the better you are at this form of communication, the more successful you're likely to be.

Identify your audience before you start creating your document. And if you feel that there's too much information to include, create an outline to help organize your thoughts. Learning grammatical and stylistic techniques will also help you write more clearly; and be sure to proof the final document. Like most things, the more you write, the better you're going to be!

This site teaches you the skills you need for a happy and successful career; and this is just one of many tools and resources that you'll find here at Mind Tools. Subscribe to our free newsletter, or join the Mind Tools Club and really supercharge your career!

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Comments (6)
  • Yolande wrote This month
    Aurora, I think it's often a lack of skill rather than talent. Even if you have all the writing talent in the world but you've never learnt how to construct a sentence, you may not be able to write an essay. Writing, like any other skill, requires practice and feedback.

    Mind Tools Team
  • Aurora wrote This month
    The vast majority of students still can’t write a good essay or an article, even if they are aware how to do that. It may depend on skills that the person has or in talents.
  • Midgie wrote Over a month ago
    Hi CesarAndres,
    Thanks for sharing your experiences with writing and communicating. I trust that you will spend some time to further develop your skills. We have lots of resources related to communication skills, and many others, that can help. So, why not put some time in the diary on a regular basis to focus on your learning and development?

    Mind Tools Team
  • CesarAndres wrote Over a month ago
    Firstly, I want to thank the person who wrote this article. It has helped me to see writing skills in another perspective; Some moment ago, I wrote an email to give response to one of our customers. The problem here is due my hasty way of doing things, it costed my a big reprimand!!!.

    Until know, I acknowledge that I've got a lot of defficiencies in my communication skills, Speaking and writing as well.

    Once again, thank you for your effort to explain this aspects; indeed, arrogance doesn't let us to see our own defects until it is too late, in most of the cases.

  • Amambo wrote Over a month ago
    Dear Dianna,

    I agree with you that writing well is a real asset. Having the information and skills about the job is nothing if you can't write well, I see this alot in report writing.

    All the best to all those on the journey of improving their communciation skills.

  • Dianna wrote Over a month ago
    In this electronic age it can seem we write a lot more than we talk - emails, texting, instant messages, tweeting - on top of all the formal reports and other written material, it all amounts to a lot of writing. So knowing how to write well is a real asset. And while you may not receive accolades for your writing prowess at work, you can very well draw negative attention if your writing is consistently poor.

    It's well worth the time to brush up on your written communication skills. Learn to proof read your work and make sure that the message you are writing is clear and mostly error-free. Using the tips in this article will help you become a better writer and communicator.


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